Phthalates (also known as phthalic acid esters, or PAEs) are used as plasticisers in many consumer products, such as plastics and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and as solvents in adhesives, cosmetics and paints. Phthalates are one of the most common organic contaminants in the environment, but data about human exposure to them are limited.
Uncontrolled population growth, rapid urbanisation, the rise in community living standards and poor planning have accelerated the rate of generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sri Lanka. Waste is ending up in open dump sites and, subsequently, water sources.
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has been sweeping parts of Sri Lanka in recent years, mainly affecting farmers in the North Central Province, but also in the Northern Province, the Eastern Province, the North Western Province, the Uva Province and the Central Province.